# department of physics and astron

## Mapping the hot Universe: the first six months of operations of eROSITA on SRG

I am an external collaborator of the eROSITA science team. It is an X-ray instrument built by the MPE in Germany. It was successfully launched in July 2019. eROSITA will map the entire sky in X-ray band and it will be 25 times more sensitive than the previous ROSAT All Sky Survey.

Visit https://zoom.us/my/jac1604 to watch live.

## The role of binary star evolution and stochastic fluctuations in modeling stellar populations

## Lattice QCD calculation of pion form factor and proton momentum and angular momentum fractions

Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics QCD provides a way to have a precise calculation and a new way of understanding the hadrons from first principles. From this perspective, I will first present a precise calculation of the pion form factor using overlap fermions on six ensembles of 2+1-flavor domain-wall configurations generated by the RBC/UKQCD collaboration with pion masses varying from 137 to 339 MeV. With a z-expansion fitting of our data, we find the pion mean square charge radius to be $\braket{r^2}_\pi = 0.437(7)(7) {\rm{fm^2}}$, including the systematic uncertainties from pion mass, lattice spacing and finite volume dependence. It agrees with the experimental value $\braket{r^2}_\pi = 0.434(5) {\rm{fm^2}}$ at a percent level. The second topic is lattice calculation of proton momentum and angular momentum fractions. As confirmed from experiment and lattice QCD calculation, the total helicity contribution from quark is just about $\sim 30\%$ of the proton spin. Determination of the rest contributions from quarks and gluons to the nucleon spin is a challenging and important problem. On the lattice side, one way to approach this problem is using the nucleon matrix element of the traceless, symmetric energy-momentum tensor (EMT) to determine the momentum and angular momentum distributions of up, down, strange and glue constituents. Since the EMT of each parton species are not separately conserved, we summarized their final angular momentum fractions by considering mixing and non-perturbative renormalization at $\overline{\rm{MS}}(\mu = 2 \ {\rm{GeV}})$ and use the momentum and angular momentum sum rules to normalize them.

Seminar slides: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/8k11s7xapdzwd0a/AACUkAq5Wd-GglwdVcX8USMVa?dl=0

## C and CP violation from mirror-symmetry breaking in the $\eta\to\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0$ Dalitz plot (Zoom talk)

The CP-violating effects observed thus far appear in flavor-changing processes and in a manner more or less consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). However, it has long been thought that the observed size of the cosmic baryon asymmetry suggests that mechanisms of CP violation beyond the CKM paradigm should exist. Permanent electric dipole moment searches are exquisite probes of new sources of P and CP violation, whereas processes that would break C and CP are not well studied. The decay $\eta\to\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0$ is an ideal process in which to search for flavor-diagonal C and CP violation. The patterns of C and CP violation that could emerge from an observed violation of mirror symmetry in the Dalitz plot distribution of $\eta\to\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0$ decay would speak to patterns of new physics as well. In particular, the isospin of the underlying C- and CP-violating structures can be reconstructed from their kinematic representation in the Dalitz plot. Our analysis of recent KLOE-2 data reveals that the C- and CP-violating amplitude with total isospin $I = 2$ is much more severely suppressed than that with total isospin $I = 0$. We conclude with a discussion of the constraints on possible new C- and CP-odd operators as derived from SM effective field theory.

Recorded talk: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/iwaagzhif5cfrm5/AAB0LSByK5kBTwlXw__ViIBaa?dl=0

## Neutron Transformations: Future Free and Bound Experimental Searches

## Real-time Least Squares Fitting for Digital Signal Processing

## The predictive power of ChPT in electroweak interactions with nucleons (Zoom talk)

The framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) sets an excellent basis for the description of low-energy electroweak processes involving hadrons in general. After a brief introduction to this theory, I will discuss some applications we have worked on, namely the processes of photon- and neutrino-induced pion production close to threshold, and the predictive power therein. Furthermore, I will show that ChPT can be of use also in other physics fields, with the example of setting constraints on CP-violating decay rates by connection to the neutron EDM calculation.

Recorded talk: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/4mkuvuxkahkjrgs/AAChvZitTcnirQeQqpu9YvvRa?dl=0

## New parameterizations and applications of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

In the past decade, renewed interest in the nucleon electromagnetic form factors was sparked by new measurements of electron-proton scattering at low Q^2 by the A1 Collaboration and of the proton charge radius in muonic hydrogen by the CREMA Collaboration. Subsequent theoretical developments re-examined longstanding assumptions on the parameterizations of these form factors. In this talk, I will review some of these developments, then present new parameterizations of the form factors that are the result of work in the past few years. Finally, I will outline applications of these form factors in both atomic physics and for the US program of precision neutrino measurements.

Recorded talk and slides: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/sek9spcry22xorw/AABHxLmJwsrae-E0zEftz7HWa?dl=0

## Detection of CEvNS on Argon in the CENNS-10 Liquid Argon Detector

In 2017, the COHERENT collaboration made the first observation of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) using a 14.6 kg CsI scintillating crystal detector located at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In addition to neutrons, the 1.4 MW pulsed (60 Hz) proton beam at the SNS produces charged pions which subsequently decay to yield a large neutrino flux with a well known energy spectrum and time structure. COHERENT employs a suite of detectors at the SNS to search for CEvNS in different target nuclei and to measure potential backgrounds. This multi-target program allows for testing of Standard Model predictions for CEvNS as well as for verifying the $N^2$-dependence of the cross section of this interaction. CENNS-10, a 24 kg liquid argon scintillation detector, has been actively taking data at the SNS since the spring of 2017. This talk will detail the methods and results of a search for and detection of CEvNS in CENNS-10 data.

Host: Ryan MacLellan